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Braille: el código de lectoescritura
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Imprimir Correo electrónico

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Este es un informe elaborado por FAICA (Federación Argentina de Ciegos y Ambliopes), con motivo de conmemorarse este año el bicentenario de su nacimiento.

Louis Braille (4 de enero de 1809 / 6 de enero de 1852) nació en la población francesa de Coupvray, distante unos cuarenta kilómetros de París. A la edad de tres años sufrió un terrible accidente: se clavó un punzón en uno de los ojos, mientras jugaba en el taller de su padre, que se ganaba la vida como talabartero. Pronto la infección le tomó los dos ojos y el niño perdió definitivamente la vista.

A los 9 años viajó con su familia a París e ingresó en el "Instituto para Jóvenes Ciegos", que aún existe. Esta escuela, creada en 1784 por el filántropo Valentín Haüy, constituye el primer intento de proporcionar a las personas ciegas una educación sistemática que los aleje de la mendicidad y los dignifique como seres humanos. 

A fin de equiparar sus oportunidades a las de todas las personas, Haüy ideó un sistema para grabar las letras convencionales en relieve y así facilitar su lectura; pero este método no permitía la escritura de los propios ciegos y los volúmenes resultantes eran inmanejables debido a su excesivo tamaño. Braille se educó con estos libros, por lo demás escasos, hasta que En 1821 Charles Barbier de la Serre , capitán retirado de la artillería francesa, visitó el instituto y presentó un medio alternativo de comunicación: la escritura nocturna, más tarde llamada sonografía; consistía en la representación fonética de las palabras, prescindiendo de la grafía o los signos de puntuación, a fin de que los militares pudieran transmitirse mensajes en la noche. Braille realizó decisivas modificaciones del método de Barbier y lo cambió por completo hasta alcanzar el código táctil que resolviera las necesidades de sus pares. Llegó a ser profesor del instituto donde había estudiado y en 1825 comenzó a difundir el nuevo sistema, que originó la oposición de sus colegas. En 1854, dos años después de su muerte, el braille finalmente se adoptó en Francia y progresivamente se extendió por todo el mundo.

Hoy su empleo es universal y abarca incluso a lenguajes ideográficos como el chino.  

¿Qué es el braille? 
Hay que disipar la afirmación generalizada según la cual se trataría del lenguaje o idioma de los ciegos. En verdad, es un código de lectoescritura en relieve, basado en una matriz de seis puntos distribuidos en un rectángulo con dos columnas verticales de tres puntos cada una. A partir de la matriz o signo generador, se obtienen 64 combinaciones que permiten representar los alfabetos de todas las lenguas, los signos matemáticos, la simbología científica y el lenguaje musical. 


¿Cuáles son sus ventajas? 
El braille es un sistema bien estructurado, ágil y sencillo; se adapta perfectamente a la yema de los dedos y las personas con vista pueden aprenderlo sin dificultades, leyéndolo con los ojos. El desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías hace que hoy sea posible almacenar la información en minúsculos dispositivos portables, con el consiguiente ahorro de espacio que esto supone, y los lectores de pantalla, mediante la síntesis de voz, verbalizan el contenido que se presenta en ella. Las nuevas tecnologías ofrecen más opciones y, lejos de sustituir al braille, lo complementan.
El braille como tal es irremplazable, porque es el único sistema que ofrece acceso a la información de manera autónoma, sin mediaciones externas. Gracias al braille, las personas ciegas pueden disfrutar de la lectura silenciosa de los textos, con el consiguiente aumento de la atención y la mejor captación del contenido aprehendido; pueden adentrarse en el estudio de la música, leyendo y escribiendo partituras; para los sordociegos el braille adquiere un valor especial, convirtiéndose en un sistema de comunicación indispensable.

Las modernas impresoras, como resultado de la beneficiosa expansión tecnológica, favorecen la eficaz y rápida producción en serie de obras en este sistema, lo que antes era impensable; y existen aparatos capaces de combinar la lectura en braille y los dispositivos basados en la síntesis de voz, aunando recursos y aprovechando todas las formas de recibir el contenido de la pantalla de una computadora. El braille y la vida cotidiana Este sistema perdería gran parte de su valor si no se utilizara en la vida diaria. Por eso, debemos fomentar su aplicación y extender las iniciativas en marcha. He aquí algunas formas de emplear el braille, más o menos desarrolladas según las circunstancias: Inscripciones en los envases de medicamentos y productos alimenticios; rotulado de los botones del ascensor; señalética en los espacios públicos; etiquetado de artículos para el hogar y elementos como CDS y DVDS; barajas y juegos adaptados como el Scrabble; impresión de cartas de restaurantes; información bancaria y factura de servicios, entre otras. También debe destacarse que en algunas regiones del mundo el voto accesible, mediante la confección de las boletas electorales en braille, es ya una realidad. Estos ejemplos muestran la plena vigencia del Sistema Braille. Su utilización ha posibilitado que las personas ciegas a lo largo de casi dos siglos puedan acceder a la información, la cultura y el trabajo, alcanzando así su integración en la sociedad.

Pero todavía hay muchas personas con discapacidad visual que no conocen este sistema, al igual que tantos otros avances que la humanidad ha generado para mejorar su calidad de vida. Según organizaciones internacionales, viven en el mundo en la actualidad más de 180 millones de personas con discapacidad visual, en su mayoría con baja visión. De las personas ciegas, sólo un pequeño porcentaje ha conocido y utiliza el Sistema Braille. Los esfuerzos que juntos, cada uno desde nuestro lugar, podamos hacer posibilitarán mejorar esta situación que genera una gran desventaja para miles de personas ciegas en nuestro país.

Fecha de publicación:
Septiembre de 2009


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