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ETC Magazine Revista On Line
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Inicio


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Arte

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Astrología

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Ecología

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El Criticón

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Gente

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Jardín

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Jazz

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Libros Recomendados

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Lugares

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Mascotas

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Mitos y Leyendas
Museos
ONGs
Psicoenfoques

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Reflexiones

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Salud

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Suplementos

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Sabores
Letras Plus
La Vidriera
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Suplementos Especiales

     Creatividad 

     Día de la Madre

     Navidad


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Navegación

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Inicio
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Links
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Suscripción

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Para recibir gratuitamente nuestras ediciones complete los siguientes datos:







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Búsqueda Rápida

 
 

 
 
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Los tres Reyes ¿Magos?
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Imprimir Correo electrónico

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La tradición cristiana considera el relato de uno de los cuatro evangelistas: Mateo, para referirse a la aparición de los Reyes Magos en la historia.
Sin embargo  hay otros relatos que testimonian distintos  conceptos y situaciones entorno a ellos.
El evangelista cristiano no menciona ni su origen cierto (se refiere de modo global al Oriente), ni sus nombres, como  tampoco los considera reyes.
Con referencia a fechas quiero mencionar acá las que figuran en tablas de barro con textos de Babilonia, que fueron traducidas por Konradin Ferrari d´Occhiepo (en 1977), según expresa  el astrólogo Walter Anliker: “Marduk (el planeta Júpiter) se acerca desde el Oriente a una conjunción con Tiamat (el planeta Saturno).
En forma muy especial se resalta el día 15 de Septiembre del mismo año. Esa noche los dos planetas recorrieron, en una estrecha conjunción, de oriente a occidente. Este fenómeno era de una belleza extraordinaria, porque la cercanía momentánea de Júpiter a la Tierra hizo que aquel brillara enormemente y a su lado Saturno apareció pequeño y opaco. Posiblemente fue esta la señal que obedecieron los Magos para iniciar su viaje de Babilonia a Jerusalén. El texto resalta además los días en los cuales cambiaron Júpiter y Saturno su movimiento de retrógrado a directo, esto fue el 12 y el 20 de noviembre 7 años a.C. Por otro lado, desde J. Kepler (1571-1630) se sabe que precisamente siete años a.C. se produjo una conjunción entre Júpiter y Saturno en el signo de Piscis. La conjunción entre estos dos planetas se produce cada 20 años y es conocida desde épocas históricas como medidor de la dirección política y socioeconómica para cada país, señalando renovaciones y cambios de generaciones, porque el nuevo Dios (Júpiter) alcanza y vence al viejo Dios (Saturno). "...... "Junto al nacimiento de Jesús se inició también una nueva era astrológica, la era de Piscis. Simbólicamente el pez (signo de Piscis) se convirtió en un importante símbolo para Cristo y el Cristianismo”.
Considerando la etimología de la palabra, mago deviene de magoi vocablo utilizado para designar a los sabios, los instruidos en conocimientos de las matemáticas y las ciencias ocultas, denominándose así a los astrónomos –astrólogos (no había diferenciación entre la astronomía y la astrología) que observaban el cielo para interpretar el destino de los hombres, a los hechiceros, y a los adivinos. ¿Se sabe realmente de donde provinieron? Oriente es la pista, pero también existen allí distintas posturas que apuntan a Arabia, a Babilonia y a Persia. Hay quienes justifican el origen árabe, llegados desde el desierto sirio debido a las ofrendas que entregaron al Niño en el lugar donde la estrella, el fulgor,  que seguían como guía, se detuvo: en el pesebre de Belén de Judea, frente al recién nacido Jesús. Se lee en el Libro de los Salmos que los reyes de Tarsis y de las islas le paguen tributo, que los reyes de Sabá y Arabia le ofrezcan sus dones... que viva y que le traigan el oro de Sabá. Esto originó que Tertuliano (160 d.C.- 220 d.C.) así lo afirmara y quedara en la tradición. Otro dato que suma a este presumible origen es que las caravanas provenientes esa región (de Medián y de Efá) llevaban camellos y dromedarios, tal como presentan antiguas pinturas. El ubicarlos provenientes de Babilonia pudo deberse  a que sus habitantes  poseían avanzados estudios en el área de la astronomía y la astrología, unido a la circunstancia de que allí estaba radicada una importante población judaica, lo que pudo haberles permitido a los astrólogos conocer las profecías de un  nuevo rey para los judíos y se movilizaran tras un signo que los llevaría hasta él, lo que hoy conocemos como Estrella de Belén. La creencia de que partieron de Persia se asocia a las representaciones pictóricas en las que aparecen con vestimenta típica de aquella zona, con sus característicos gorros frigios, así como a la creencia en la profecía de Zoroastro referida a que en Jerusalén arribarían unos magos en circunstancias en que habría de nacido un niño de una virgen, que luego de ser muerto por los judíos subiría  a los cielos, y que dichos magos  vendrían de Persidos, es decir  Persia.
Tal como se mencionó anteriormente tampoco se sabe con certeza nombres y número de estos personajes. Efrén, escritor sirio del siglo IV se refiere a ellos como Homizda, rey de Persia, Yazdegerd, rey de Sabá, y Perozad, rey de Arabia.
Es probable que recién entre los siglos VII y VIII d. C. tradiciones cristianas les hayan asignado los nombres y las características con que más se los conoce. Melchor, anciano de cabello blanco y barba larga, el joven y rubio Gaspar, y Baltasar, barbudo y negro. Así se representa que el mensaje de Jesús es universal, para todas las razas y condiciones. Entre los textos apócrifos, el evangelio Armenio de la Infancia , los identifica (en el siglo VI d. C.)  como Melkon, rey de los persas; Gaspar, de los indios, y Baltasar, de los árabes. En el protoevangelio de Santiago, escrito en lengua etíope se los nombra  Tanisuram, Malik y Sissebá. En tanto que su número de tres bien pudo haberse originado en la suposición de que cada uno entregó una ofrenda (mencionado en el Evangelio Canónico escrito por Mateo) de oro, incienso y mirra. El oro honrando su calidad de Rey de Reyes, el incienso su naturaleza divina y la mirra su constitución humana.  Se sabe que los cristianos egipcios hacían referencia a una caravana de sesenta integrantes. A su vez fuentes cristianas de origen sirio y armenio, basado en la existencia de las doce tribus de Israel, les atribuyeron justamente esa cantidad.  Personajes, sabios de un origen y un número no definido, los Reyes Magos siguen presentes en las tradiciones que guarda la historia y hacen a nuestra búsqueda de símbolos y significancias para sostener creencias. 

Yeroskipos


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